ZYAB Ibañez. The entrenchment of unemployment and housing problem matching the dramatic political and social evolution of the country in recent decades, suggests that Spain has taken, at least since the political transition, a double life, Pretty in paral.lels universes contradictoris.
From all this it is tempting to imagine a final cycle, where all the past was better, the, if one is optimistic, en el principles of an other, with the best yet to come. Just a random schedule to reinforce the illusion. About birthdays, Heads of year, elections or political crisis spectacular, as now through Europe and even worse Spain. Maybe accelerate social change, and each course end or beginning of stage drama Miss. In any case, highlights the stubborn persistence of some weaknesses Spanish, particularly those in which public policies are time and again unable to correct the excesses of the market, as happens with the endemic problems of unemployment, low wages and access to housing.
It is true that the Spanish economy and society have evolved dramatically since the transition to democracy, even before, benefiting from a more or less direct European revival after World War II. However, during all these years, half of the population has not been freed from the threat of unemployment, low wages and their vital shortages. One of the most visible has been the difficulty of access to housing and the poor quality of many of the houses built on successive waves of blocks suburbs.
Both unemployment and low wages as crowded neighborhoods seemed to convey the same message, more or less explicit: this is a country where almost half the surplus people. Course, this reality, among other things, contains an arsenal of disciplinary.
That was from the first attempts developers years 50, the, Unlike other European countries, Spanish industrialization is insufficient to absorb new generations. Surely this belated industrialization and insufficient shares roots of problems that come up to the present. After, cycles of growth, the latter fueled by low interest euro, promised a final launch of this sad past, but after years of mirage, unemployment returns above 25%, and intensified insecurity and low wages . In addition, as the illusion has been longer and trickster, unlike previous collapses, this represents a leap in scale in the sufferings, as generation after generation of youth lost behind “pisets”, added tragedies evictions or debts biographical reach a level of almost feudal submission.
This entrenchment labor and housing problem matching the dramatic political and social evolution of the country in recent decades, suggests that Spain has taken, at least since the political transition, a double life, Pretty in paral.lels universes contradictoris. D'band, and with eyes on Europe, There was an ambitious development of citizenship rights has been behind, and chronologically, the extension of access to higher education and health, a large opening in the range of values (family models, sexuality), the massive incorporation of women in employment and relatively civilized reception 5 million immigrants. Moreover, but, persisted the bleak reality of work, that even in the best years of the bubble got away from unemployment 10%, nor prevented a majority of Spaniards saw their wages stagnate, or even lowered for many, despite the large and sustained surpluses business. This compounded by European leadership in terms of annual increases in housing prices (period 1980-2006), which required a collective effort of many in the rent or purchase housing unparalleled among European neighbors.
Already in the years “good” or less bad, according to whom, three breakthroughs mentioned -arribada mass university, female labor participation and open border- were poorly digested by the labor market, stressed that old tensions and created new. Multiplied offering real and potential employees, with clear effects of reserve army, while the demand for labor continued to suffer its traditional evils: the poor quality, the other, accustomed to insecurity. A precarious already spent more than a decade younger suffering, women and immigrants. Remember that the term “mileurista” is popularitza the 2005, when much of our political class looked almost France and Italy with some disdain, although half of Spaniards charges under 1.000 €, well below the minimum wage French.
In this environment so vulnerable, reached crisis, their cuts and austerity use as an excuse to reinforce the trend towards privatization in health, an increasing polarization between public education and a concerted and systematic abuse of the weak labor market groups are difficult to translate their numbers into political clout.
So, hope in the historic democratic egalitarian thrust of the public and political spheres reaches the labor market and basic needs such as housing, against fear of inertia against, the growing economic inequality become more and more present in other social areas. The worsening of the crisis could bring this double life in the opposite of what many would like. Schools rich, rich medium, poor poor mig i tot, something similar with hospitals, and rich people getting away from the poor. Many cleaning ladies ever spend more hours on buses that transport between their homes and their jobs.
Obviously, solutions to these problems, starting with the mere understanding, are not simple, that combine factors from other transnational historical, through complicated institutional frameworks, very difficult to assess. A challenge that surely goes beyond the cognitive abilities of actors and governments that are facing these problems, which apology of his impotence. But nothing explains the excesses of euphoria, complacency and lack of courage shown by the governments of different color during the last 15, 20, 30 or more years. Why, after nearly 40 years of democracy, many groups coming to power, from bankers to air traffic controllers, continue privileges far above their European, while agricultural harvesters, Educating children or supermarket cashiers earn half their French neighbors? Why a country with a lower population densities in Europe, and after three construction boom, still many of the most crowded and worst value for money? As described housing policies of democracy, when some of the coveted spaces today in Barcelona and Madrid are residential streets workers early S. XX? Why during 15 years of accumulated growth, and despite having half the population below Twixter, so little has been done to raise the minimum wage?
If you do not accept discard half the population lazy or clumsy, so much deserve their current hardships, or even worse, really need some whys. Meanwhile, other consolation than to confront this crisis does not become a pervert housing policy for use of economic power, with such va pass als 50, 80 i 90. With the housing per capita highest in Europe, many gaps, maybe we can direct our energies more imagination. To finish, warning: these initiatives disguised rehabilitation Government is considering, and a proposal: to avoid being captive markets of the agents responsible for bubbles, and free land offered by the extension of the country, there may be room for initiatives such as self, eg, the successful programs “Incremental housing” Latin America?